Language Assessment Literacy Components; Now and Then: A Case of Iranian EFL Head Teachers

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of English, Torbat-e Heydarieh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Torbat-e Heydarieh, Iran

2 Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran


Inspired by Fulcher's Language Assessment Literacy (LAL) framework, this study focuses on two central concerns: first, the current components of LAL; and second, the needed components of LAL from the Iranian EFL (English as a Foreign Language) head teachers' point of view. To this end, 147 EFL head teachers working at the Ministry of Education were selected. Semi-structured interviews, including demographic information and assessment-related issues, were used as the data collection method for this qualitative study. Moreover, Fulcher’s assessment literacy framework was drawn on as the analytic model guiding the study. Based on the findings, knowing and understanding LAL basics, principles and processes such as knowledge of reliability and validity, assessment models and frameworks, washback, ethical issues, rubric development, interactiveness, test formats, design of receptive and productive skills and assessment process were among the current components of LAL. Further, the effects and consequences of LAL on learners such as social, political, educational, economical and psychological consequences, were identified as the needed components for the future. The implications of the study for teachers' Continuing Professional Development programs were also noted.


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