Corrective Feedback and Iranian EFL Learners' Spoken Complexity and Accuracy

Document Type: Original Article

Authors

University of Tabriz

Abstract

One of the possible negative consequences of the corrective feedback (CF), as a way of focus on form, can be a trade-off between the learners' spoken complexity and accuracy, due to their attentional limitations. Consequently, the purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of the different CF types on Iranian EFL learners' spoken complexity and accuracy and the trade-off between them. To this end, four preintermediate intact classes were randomly selected as the delayed explicit metalinguistic CF, intensive recast, extensive recast, and control groups. All groups' participants participated in spoken reproduction tasks for six sessions and their errors were treated differently. Then, the data were transcribed, coded for the complexity and accuracy, and statistically analyzed. The results indicated that different CF types had insignificant effects on the complexity of the spoken production. However, the delayed explicit metalinguistic CF group significantly increased the spoken specific accuracy. Considering the trade-off between the spoken complexity and accuracy, it was revealed that the correlations between them was statistically insignificant and different CF conditions had no significant effect on it. These findings suggest that CF, of the delayed explicit metalinguistic type, can be an effective way for the development of the spoken specific accuracy of the Iranian EFL learners. In addition, its development has no negative effects on their spoken complexity.

Keywords


Ahmadian, M. J. (2012).  The effects of guided careful online planning on complexity, accuracy, and fluency in intermediate EFL learners' oral production: The case of English articles. Language Teaching Research, 16(1), 1-21.

Ahmadian, M. J., & Tavakoli, M. (2010). The effects of simultaneous use of careful online planning and task repetition on accuracy, complexity, and fluency in EFL learners' oral production. Language Teaching Research, 15(1), 35-59. 

Ammar, A., & Spade, N. ( 2006 ). One size fits all? Recasts, prompts, and L2 learning. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 28, 543-574.

Ansarian, A. A. & Chehr Azad, M. H. (2015). Differential effects of focused and unfocused recasts on the EFL learners' oral accuracy. Colomb. Applied. Linguist. J., 17(1), 86-97.

Carroll, S. (2001). Input and evidence: The raw material of second language acquisition. Amsterdam: Benjamins.

Crookes, G.  (1989). Planning and interlanguage variation. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 11, 367-383.

Doughty, C. J. (2001). Cognitive underpinnings of focus on form. In P. Robinson (Ed.), Cognition and second language instruction (pp. 206-257). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Dougthy, C, J., & Varela, E. (1998). Communicative focus on form. In C. J. Doughty & J. Williams (Eds.), Focus on form in classroom second language acquisition (pp. 114-138). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Dougthy, C. J., & Williams, J. (1998). Pedagogical choices in focus on from. In C. J. Doughty & J. Williams (Eds.), Focus on from in classroom second language acquisition (pp. 197-261). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Ellis, N. (2005). At the interface: Dynamic interactions of explicit and implicit language knowledge. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 27, 305 – 352.

Ellis, R. (1991). Second language acquisition and language pedagogy. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

Ellis, R. (1994). A theory of instructed second language acquisition. In N. Ellis (Ed.), Implicit and explicit learning of languages (pp. 79-114). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Ellis, R. (2001). Investigating form-focused instruction.  Language Learning, 51(1), 1-46.

Ellis, R. (2003). Task based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ellis, R. (2008). The study of second language acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ellis, R. (2009). Corrective feedback and teacher development. L2 Journal, 1(1), 3-18.

Ellis, R., & Barkhuizen, G. (2005). Analyzing learner language. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ellis. R., Loewen, S., & Erlam, R. (2006). Implicit and explicit corrective feedback and the acquisition of L2 grammar. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 28, 339-358.

Ellis, R., Sheen, Y., Murakami, M., & Takashima, H. (2008). The effects of focused and unfocused written corrective feedback in an English as a foreign language context. System, 36, 353-371.

Farrokhi, F., & Chehr Azad, M. H. (2012). The effects of planned focus on form on Iranian EFL learners' oral accuracy. World Journal of Education, 2(1), 70-81.

Foster, P., & Skehan, P. (1996). The influence of planning and task type on second language performance. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 18, 293-323.

Foster, P., Tonkyn, A., & Wigglesworth, G. (2000). Measuring spoken language: A unit for all reasons. Applied Linguistics, 21, 354-375.

Fotos, S., & Ellis, R. (1991). Communication about grammar: A task-based approach. TESOL Quarterly, 25, 605-628.

Gass, S. M., & Varonis, E. M. (1994). Input, interaction, and second language production. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 16, 283-302.

Golshan, M. (2013). Corrective Feedback during Communicate Tasks: Do recasts, clarification requests and explicit correction affect EFL learners’ second language acquisition equally? European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences, 2, 559-571.

Han, Z. (2002). A study of the impact of recasts on tense consistency in L2 output. TESOL Quarterly, 36, 543-72.

Harley, B., & Swain, M. (1984). The interlanguage of immersion students and its implications for second language teaching. In A. Davis, C. Criper, & A. Howatt (Eds.), Interlanguage (pp. 291-311). Edinburg: Edinburg University Press.

Hill, L. A. (1988). Steps to understanding. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Hoseini Fatemi, A., & Harati, N., A. (2014). The impact of recast versus prompts on the grammatical accuracy of Iranian EFL learners' speech. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 4, 532-543.

Iwashita, N. (2003). Negative feedback and positive evidence in task-based interaction: Differential effects on L2 development. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 25, 1-36.

Kamiya, N. (2015). The effectiveness of intensive and extensive recasts on L2 acquisition for implicit and explicit knowledge. Linguistics and Education, 29, 59–72.

Kawauchi, C. (2005). The effects of strategic planning on the oral narratives of learners with low and high intermediate L2 proficiency. In Ellis, R. (Eds.), Planning and task performance in a second language (pp. 143-164). Amsterdam: Benjamins.

Krashen, S. (1982). Principals and practice in second language acquisition. Oxford: Pergamon.

Leeman, J. (2003). Recasts and second language development: Beyond negative evidence. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 25, 37-63.

Li, S. (2010).The Effectiveness of corrective feedback in SLA: A meta-analysis. Language Learning, 60, 309-365.

Lightbown, P., & Spada, N. (1990). Focus-on-form and corrective feedback in communicative language teaching: Effects on second language learning. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 12, 429-448.

Loewen, S. (2011). Focus on form. In E. Hinkel (Ed.), Handbook of research in second language teaching and learning (pp. 576-592). London: Routledge.

Loewen, S., & Philp, J. (2006). Recasts in the adult English L2 classroom: Characteristics, explicitness, and effectiveness. Modern Language Journal, 90, 536-556.

Long. M. H. (1991). Focus on form: A design feature in language teaching methodology. In K. De Bot, R. Ginsberg, & C. K. Kramsch (Eds.), Foreign language research in cross-cultural perspective (pp. 39-52). Amsterdam: Benjamins.

Long, M. H. (1996). The role of the linguistic environment in second language acquisition. In W. Ritchie & T. Bhatia (Eds.), Handbook of second language acquisition (pp. 413-468). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Long, M. H., & Crookes, G. (1992). Three approaches to task based syllabus design. TESOL Quarterly, 26, 27–56.

Long, M. H., & Robinson, P. (1998). Focus on form: Theory, research, and practice. In C. Doughty & J. Williams (Eds.), Focus on form in classroom second language acquisition (pp. 15-41). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Lyster, R. (2004).Differential effects of prompts and recasts in form- focused instruction. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 26, 399-432.

Lyster, R., & Ranta, L. (1997). Corrective feedback and the learner uptake: Negotiation of form in communicative classrooms. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 19, 37-66.

Mackey, A., & Goo, J. (2007). Interaction research in SLA: A meta-analysis and research synthesis. In A. Mackey (Ed.), Conversational interaction in second language acquisition: A collection of empirical studies (pp. 407-452). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Maftoon, P., & Kolahi, S. (2009). The impact of recasts on the syntactic accuracy of Iranian EFL university students’ oral discourse. The Journal of Applied Linguistics, 2(2), 160-178.

Nicholas, H., Lightbown, P., & Spada, N. (2001). Recasts as feedback to language learners. Language Learning, 51, 719-758.

Rahimi, A., & Vahid Dastjerdi, H. (2012). Impact of immediate and delayed error correction on EFL Learners’ Oral Production: CAF. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 3(1), 45-54.

Rahimpour, M., Salimi, A., & Farrokhi, F. (2012). The effect of planned vs. unplanned form-focused strategies on L2 learners' accuracy in oral task performance. Education Research Journal, 2, 247-252.

Rassaei, E. (2015). Oral corrective feedback, foreign language anxiety and L2 development. System, 49, 98-109.

Rassaei, E., & Moinzadeh, A. (2014). Recasts, metalinguistic feedback, and learners' perceptions: a case of Persian EFL learners. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 8(1), 39-55

Robinson, P. (2003). Individual differences, cognitive abilities, aptitude complexes, and learning conditions in second language acquisition. Second Language Research, 17, 368-92.

Russell, J., & Spada, N. (2006). The effectiveness of corrective feedback for second language acquisition: A meta-analysis of the research. In J. Norris & L. Ortega (Eds.), Synthesizing research on language learning and teaching (pp. 131-164). Amsterdam: Benjamins.

Saeedi, P. (2015). Unguided strategic planning, task structure, and L2 oral performance: Focusing on complexity, accuracy, and fluency. Journal of Applied Linguistics and Language Research, 2, 263-274.

Salimi, A. (2015).The Effect of Focus on Form and Task Complexity on L2 Learners’ Oral Task Performance.  Advances in Language and Literary Studies, 6(6), 54-62.

Sample, E., & Michel, M. (2014). An exploratory study into trade-off effects of complexity, accuracy and fluency in young learners' oral task repetition (Special issue). TESL Canada Journal, 31(8), p. 23-46.

Sato, M., & Lyster, R. (2012). Peer interaction and corrective feedback for accuracy and fluency development: monitoring, practice and proceduralization. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 34, 591-626.

Schmidt, R. (1990). The role of consciousness in second language learning. Applied linguistics, 11, 129-158.

Schmidt, R. (1995). Consciousness and foreign language learning: A tutorial on the role of attention and awareness in learning. In R. Schmidt (Ed.), Attention and awareness in foreign language learning (pp. 1-63). Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii, Second Language Teaching & Curriculum Center.

Schmidt, R. (2001). Attention. In P. Robinson (Ed.), Cognition and second language instruction (pp. 3-32). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Seyed Motahari, M., & Ghasemi Nik Manesh, A. (2014).The comparative effect of explicit corrective feedback and clarification request feedback on impulsive and reflective EFL learners’ oral fluency. International Journal of Enhanced Research in Educational Development (IJERED), 2 (2), 32-42.

Sheen, Y. (2007). The effects of corrective feedback, language aptitude, and learner attitudes on the acquisition of English articles. In A. Mackey (Ed.), Conversational interaction in second language acquisition: A collection of empirical studies (pp. 301-322). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Sheen, Y., Wright, D., & Moldawa, A. (2009). Differential effects of focused and unfocused written correction on the accurate use of grammatical forms by adult ESL learners. System, 37, 556-569.

Skehan, P. (1996). A framework for the implication of task based instruction. Applied Linguistics, 17, 38-61.

Skehan, P. (1998). A cognitive approach to language learning. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Skehan, P. (2009). Modelling second language performance: Integrating complexity, accuracy, fluency, and lexis. Applied Linguistics, 30, 510-532.

Skehan, P., & Foster, P. (1997). Task type and task processing conditions as influences on foreign language performance. Language Teaching Research, 1, 185-211.

Skehan, P., & Foster, P. (2001). Cognition and Tasks. In P. Robinson (Ed.), Cognition and Second Language Instruction (pp. 183-205). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Spada, N. (1997). Form-focused instruction and second language acquisition: A review of classroom and laboratory research. Language Teaching, 30 (2), 73-87.

Spada, N., & P. Lightbown (1993). Instruction and the development of questions in L2 classrooms. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 15, 205-224.

Van Patten, B. (1990). Attending to form and content in the input. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 12, 287-301.

Vercellotti, M. L. (2012). Complexity, accuracy, and fluency as properties of language performance: The development of the multiple subsystems over time and in relation to each other (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Pittsburgh, USA.

Wigglesworth, G. (1997). An investigation of planning time and proficiency level on oral test discourse. Language Testing, 14, 85-106.


Volume 12, Issue 2
Summer and Autumn 2018
Pages 117-143
  • Receive Date: 17 December 2017
  • Revise Date: 05 September 2018
  • Accept Date: 01 October 2018