The effects of planning condition, task structure, and gender on EFL learners' written performance

Document Type : Original Article


Tarbiat Modares University



This study focuses on the effect of different variables on the nature of language performance in the context of task-based instruction. The effects of three different tasks with various inherent structures (the personal, the narrative, and the decision-making tasks), two planning conditions (pre-planning and noplanning), and gender on the variables of fluency, accuracy, complexity, and lexical density were investigated. The findings of the study revealed strong effects of planning on all aspects of learners' performances. Also, significant differences were found among the three tasks with the personal and the narrative tasks resulting in better performance than the decision task. No significant differences were found between males and females groups. In addition, interactions were found between task type and planning condition. The findings justifies the integration of planning time and the use of different tasks in writing courses as they clearly promote some aspects of performance.