Incorporating feedback timing into learning and retention of vocabulary and morpho-syntax: Focus on Iranian EFL learners in a CMC context

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of English, Faculty of humanities, Shahid Chamran Univerisity of Ahvaz

2 Farhangian University of Ahvaz, IRAN

3 Department of English, Faculty of humanities, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz



This study explored the impact of corrective feedback timing into learning and retention of lexical items and morpho-syntax markers following a pretest-posttest-delayed posttest-quasi experimental design. Sixty Iranian EFL learners from three same-level intermediate online classes were initially homogenized and pigeonholed into three equal groups depending on the feedback timing they received; the immediate CF (IC), short-term CF (SC) and delayed CF (DC). Participants in IC received corrective feedback during performing the task (online CF), the learners in SC after completing the task, and in DC a few days later. A one-way ANOVA and post-hoc test were administered to analyze the learners’ performance on written and oral pre, post and delayed post-tests. The results demonstrated a significant effect for immediate CF in learning of target structures. On GJT, the immediate CF group performed significantly higher than other two groups. As for OPT, a significant difference existed between immediate and delayed CF groups. The results also revealed that IC group statistically outperformed both SC and DC groups on GJT as well as OPT tests in retention of target features. The benefit observed for the IC group might be due to the memory benefits experienced by the immediate CF group while making a cognitive comparison, accessible as long as the L2 learner could hold a representation of the propositional message.


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