Efficacy of L2 teacher education programs: A comparison of public and private sectors in Iran

Document Type : Original Article


Razi University


The study is an attempt to evaluate and compare teacher education programs (TEPs) in Farhangian University and private language institutes in Iran. The data were collected from 142 Iranian EFL teachers through a questionnaire and focus group interviews. The results of multiple independent samples t-tests showed that teacher educators in private language institutes performed better in preparing teachers compared to teacher educators in Farhangian University, while no considerable difference was found in the other five subscales of the TEPs (i.e. program structure, program courses, psychology and cognition, professional development, and knowledge base), and the overall teacher education programs in Farhangian University and private language institutes; nonetheless, teachers in private language institutes recorded higher mean scores in all the subscales than their counterparts from Farhangian University, indicating that private language institutes performed slightly better in preparing EFL teachers. Additionally, based on the interview data, various categories of suggestions were developed for improving the TEPs from several aspects including the length of the programs, teacher educators, content knowledge, practice-based education, reflection and professional development, and program courses. The implications for L2 teacher education, policymakers, and teacher educators are discussed, along with some suggestions for additional research.


Aghamohammadi, J. (2021). Explain the components of managerial ethics and the extent of their reflection in the evolutionary documents of education; A model for selecting the Managers of Farhangian University. Research in Teacher Education (RTE), 4(1), 73-91.
Akcan, S. (2016). Novice non-native English teachers' reflections on their teacher education programmes and their first years of teaching. Profile Issues in Teachers’ Professional Development, 18(1), 55-70. http://dx.doi.org/10.15446/profile.v18n1.48608
Arslan, F. Y., & Gülden, İ. (2018). The effects of teaching practicum on EFL pre-service teachers’ concerns. Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 14(2), 265-282. https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/jlls/issue/43364/527979  
Ary, D., Jacobs, L. C., Irvine, C. K. S., & Walker, D. (2018). Introduction to research in education. Cengage Learning.
Chaw, E. P., & Kopp, E. (2021). Student-teachers' Experiences During Practicum in Pre-service Teacher Education in Myanmar. LUMEN Proceedings, 16, 101-120. https://doi.org/10.18662/lumproc/atee2020/08
Chen, J. (2012). Favorable and unfavorable characteristics of EFL teachers perceived by university students of Thailand. International Journal of English Linguistics, 2(1), 213-219. http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/ijel.v2n1p213
Coskun, A., & Daloglu, A. (2010). Evaluating an English language teacher education program through Peacock's model. Australian Journal of Teacher Education (Online), 35(6), 24-42.
Darling-Hammond, L. (2000). How teacher education matters. Journal of Teacher Education, 51(3), 166-173. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022487100051003002
Darling-Hammond, L., Holtzman, D. J., Gatlin, S. J., & Heilig, J. V. (2005). Does teacher preparation matter? Evidence about teacher certification, Teach for America, and teacher effectiveness. Education Policy Analysis Archives/Archivos Analíticos de Políticas Educativas, 13(42), 1-48. https://www.redalyc.org/articulo.oa?id=275020513042
De Dios Martinez Agudo, J. (2017). What EFL student teachers think about their professional preparation: Evaluation of an English language teacher education programme in Spain. Australian Journal of Teacher Education (Online), 42(8), 62-76. https://informit.org/doi/10.3316/informit.026041651854426
Dehghan, F., & Sahragard, R. (2015). Iranian EFL teachers' views on action research and its application in their classrooms: A case study. Journal of Teacher Education and Educators, 4(1), 39-52. https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/jtee/issue/43261/525466
Faez, F., & Valeo, A. (2012). TESOL teacher education: Novice teachers' perceptions of their preparedness and efficacy in the classroom. TESOL Quarterly, 46(3), 450-471. https://doi.org/10.1002/tesq.37
Farrell, T. S. (2018). Operationalizing reflective practice in second language teacher education. Journal of Second Language Teacher Education, 1(1), 1-20.
Ganji, M., Ketabi, S., & Shahnazari, M. (2016). Evaluating an English teacher training course for Iranian institutes' language teachers. Iranian Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 5(1), 70-90. 20.1001.1.24763187.2016.
Ganji, M., Ketabi, S., & Shahnazari, M. (2018). English teacher training courses in Iranian private language institutes: Issues and options. Issues in Educational Research, 28(2), 367-384. http://www.iier.org.au/iier28/ganji.pdf
Gholami, J., & Qurbanzada, I. (2016). Key stakeholders' attitudes towards teacher education programs in TEFL: A case study of Farhangian University in Iran. Journal of Teacher Education for Sustainability, 18(2), 5-20. https://doi.org/10.1515/jtes-2016-0011
Karakas, A. (2012). Evaluation of the English language teacher education program in Turkey. ELT Weekly, 4(15), 1-16.
Karim, A., Shahed, F. H., Mohamed, A. R., Rahman, M. M., & Ismail, S. A. M. M. (2019). Evaluation of the teacher education programs in EFL context: A Testimony of student teachers' perspective. International Journal of Instruction, 12(1), 127-146. https://doi.org/10.29333/iji.2019.1219a
Kitchen, J., & Stevens, D. (2008). Action research in teacher education: Two teacher-educators practice action research as they introduce action research to preservice teachers. Action Research, 6(1), 7-28. https://doi.org/10.1177/1476750307083716
Liu, M.-H., & Kleinsasser, R. (2015). Exploring EFL teachers’ knowledge and competencies: In-service program perspectives. Language Learning & Technology, 19(1), 119-138.
Masoumpanah, Z., Tahririan, M. H., Alibabaee, A., & Afzali, K. (2017). Evaluation of the undergraduate TEFL program at Farhangian University: Merits and demerits. Iranian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 20(2), 157-193.
Masoumpanah, Z., Tahririan, M. H., Afzali, K., & Alibabaee, A. (2019). An evaluation of practicum courses at Farhangian University. Iranian Journal of Language Teaching Research, 7(2), 101-119. https://doi.org/10.30466/ijltr.2019.120700
Merriam, S. B., & Tisdell, E. J. (2015). Qualitative research: A guide to design and implementation. John Wiley & Sons.
Namaziandost, E., Heydarnejad, T., & Azizi, Z. (2022). The Impacts of Reflective Teaching and Emotion Regulation on Work Engagement: Into Prospect of Effective Teaching in Higher Education. Teaching English Language17(1), 139-170.  https://doi.org/10.22132/tel.2022.164264
Nguyen, H. T. M., & Ngo, N. T. H. (2018). Learning to reflect through peer mentoring in a TESOL practicum. ELT Journal, 72(2), 187-198. https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/ccx053
Peacock, M. (2009). The evaluation of foreign-language-teacher education programmes. Language Teaching Research, 13(3), 259-278. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168809104698
Pham, A. T. (2022). What makes a good EFL teacher: A reference for language teacher education. Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies18(1), 150-159
Soodmand Afshar, H., Fazelimanie, A., & Doosti, M. (2017). Developing an inventory to investigate current professional development needs of Iranian EFL teachers. Teaching English Language11(2), 161-194.  https://doi.org/10.22132/tel.2017.53187
Tajik, L., Mirhosseini, S.-A., & Ramezani, A. (2019). “Now as a teacher”: Novice teachers reflect on English language teacher education in Iran. The Qualitative Report, 24(6), 1373-1398.
Tavazoei, M., & Razmjoo, S. A. (2021). A SWOT Analysis of Farhangian University TEFL program. Iranian Journal of Applied Language Studies, 13(2), 19-32.
Tschannen-Moran, M., & Hoy, A. W. (2007). The differential antecedents of self-efficacy beliefs of novice and experienced teachers. Teaching and teacher Education, 23(6), 944-956.
Yook, C., & Lee, Y.-h. (2016). Korean EFL teachers’ perceptions of the impact of EFL teacher education upon their classroom teaching practices. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 44(5), 522-536. https://doi.org/10.1080/1359866X.2016.1144171
Yuan, R., & Hu, Y. (2018). Teachers’ views on the qualities of effective EFL teacher educators. ELT Journal, 72(2), 141-150. https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/ccx032