The effects of changing the deletion direction and deletion ratio on the validity and reliability of the C-test

Document Type : Original Article


Shiraz University



 This study looks at the effects of changing the deletion direction and ratio on the validity and reliability of the C-test. For this purpose, a cluster sampling procedure was used to select 324 English students with different levels of proficiency. The subjects were then randomly assigned to three experimental groups. Each group took a TOEFL test and a C-test version. The three C-test versions were all based on the same texts. Immediately after completing the C-test, subjects received a ten-item questionnaire about issues such as face validity, suitability, and possible functions of the C-test. The findings indicated that changing the deletion ratio from 2 to 3 can result in an easier C-test with a higher discrimination power and a better criterion-related validity. On the other hand, changing the deletion direction (from right to left) can result in a more difficult C-test with a lower discrimination power and a worse concurrent validity –a C-test which might be a completely different test that measures a different construct. However, the changes to the deletion technique probably do not result in any changes to the reliability.


Volume 3, Issue 1
July 2009
Pages 23-52
  • Receive Date: 29 January 2008
  • Revise Date: 27 June 2008
  • Accept Date: 30 June 2008
  • First Publish Date: 01 July 2008