On the Construct Validity of the Persian Version of Ohio State Teacher Efficacy Scale: The Case of Iran


1 Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran, Iran

2 Islamic Azad University of Takestan


Teacher efficacy may relate to their effectiveness in terms of class management, instructional strategies, and student achievement. Some questionnaires have been used to capture teachers' efficacy. The most frequently used one is theOhio State Teacher Efficacy Scale. The study examined the construct validity and reliability of the Persian version of the Ohio State Teacher Efficacy Scale (POSTES) with an available sample of 536 Iranian teachers of English. Their age ranged from 20 to 64 years. The data, ordinal in nature, were submitted to Bayesian confirmatory factor analysis, as computed in AMOS. Convergence Statistic (CS)was 1.0008, which was well below 1.002, the critical value, thereby demonstrating construct validity of the instrument. The reliability of the scale turned out to be high (α = .94). Given the fact that POSTES was both valid and reliable, it is safe to hold that this questionnaire is useful for obtaining information regarding Iranian English teachers' sense of self-efficacy.


Armor, D., Conroy-Oseguera, P., Cox, M., King, N., McDonnell, L., Pascal, A., Pauly, E., & Zellman, G. (1976). Analysis of the school preferred reading programs in selected Los Angeles minority schools. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation.
Ashton, P. T., Olejnik, S., Crocker, L., & McAuliffe, M. (1982). Measurement problems in the study of teachers' sense of efficacy. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New York.
Ashton, P. T., Buhr, D., & Crocker, L. (1984). Teachers' sense of efficacy: A self- or norm-referenced construct? Florida Journal of Educational Research, 26(1), 29–41.
Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84, 191–215.
Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York, NY: Freeman.
Bandura, A. (2006). Guide for creating self-efficacy scales. In F. Pajares & T. Urdan (Eds.), Self-efficacy beliefs of adolescents (pp. 307–337). Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.
Bong, M. (2006). Asking the right question: How confident are you that you could successfully perform these tasks? In F. Pajares & T. Urdan (Eds.), Self-efficacy beliefs of adolescents (pp. 287–305). Greenwich, CT: Information Age.
Brookover, W., Schweitzer, J., Schneider, C., Beady, C., Flood, P., & Wisenbaker, J. (1978). Elementary school social climate and student achievement. American Educational Research Journal, 15, 301–318.
Chacon, C. T. (2005). Teachers’ perceived efficacy among English as a foreign language teachers in middle schools in Venezuela. Teaching and Teacher Education, 21, 257-272.
Chesnut, S. R., & Burley, H. (2015). Self-efficacy as a predictor of commitment to the teaching profession: A meta-analysis. Educational Research Review, 15, 1-16.
Chiang, M.-H. (2008). Effects of fieldwork experience on empowering prospective foreign language teachers. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24(5), 1270-1287. DOI: 10.1016/j.tate.2007.05.004.
Dellinger, A. B., Bobbett, J. J., Olivier, D. F., & Ellett, C. D. (2008). Measuring teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs: Development and use of the TEBS-self. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24(3), 751-766.
Doordinejad, F. G., & Afshar, H. (2014). On the relationship between self-efficacy and English achievement among Iranian third-grade high school students. International Journal of Language Learning and Applied Linguistics World (IJLLALW), 6(4), 461-470.
Emmer, E., & Hickman, J. (1991). Teacher efficacy in classroom management and discipline. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 51, 755–765.
Faez, F., & Karas, M. (2017). Connecting language proficiency to (self-reported) teaching ability: a review and analysis of research. RELC Journal, 48(1), 135-151.
Fathi, J., & Derakhshan, A. (2019). Teacher self-efficacy and emotional regulation as predictors of teaching stress: An investigation of Iranian English language teachers. Teaching English Language (TEL), 13(2), 117-143.
Friedman, I. A., & Kass, E. (2002). Teachers self–efficacy: A classroom organization conceptualization. Teaching and Teacher Education, 18, 675–686.
Ghanizadeh, A., & Moafian, F. (2011). The relationship between Iranian EFL teachers' sense of self-efficacy and their pedagogical success in language institutes. Asian EFL Journal, 13(2), 249-272.
Ghonsooly, B., & Ghanizadeh, A. (2011). Self-efficacy and self-regulation and their relationship: A study of Iranian teachers. The Language Learning Journal, 41(1), 1-17.
Gibson, S., & Dembo, M. (1984). Teacher efficacy: A construct validation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 76, 569–582.
Goddard, R. G., Hoy, W. K., & Woolfolk Hoy, A. (2004). Collective efficacy beliefs: Theoretical developments, empirical evidence, and future directions. Educational Researcher, 33(3), 3–13.
Guskey, T. R. (1981). Measurement of responsibility teachers assume for academic successes and failures in the classroom. Journal of Teacher Education, 32, 44–51.
Han, J., & Hiver, P. (2018). Genre-based L2 writing instruction and writing-specific psychological factors: The dynamics of change. Journal of Second Language Writing, 40, 44–59.
Harmsen, R., Helms-Lorenz, M., Maulana, R., van Veen, K., & van Veldhoven, M. (2019). Measuring general and specific stress causes and stress responses among beginning secondary school teachers in the Netherlands. International Journal of Research & Method in Education, 42(1), 91-108.
Hashemi, M. R., & Ghanizadeh, A. (2011). Emotional intelligence and self-efficacy: A case of Iranian EFL university students. International Journal of Linguistics, 3(1), 1-16.
Hashemi Moghadam, H. R. (2015). An investigation into the relationship between Iranian high school EFL teachers’ emotional intelligence and their self-efficacy. International Journal of Social Sciences and Education, 5(3), 509-518.
Henson, R. K., Bennett, D. T., Sienty, S. F., & Chambers, S. M. (2000). The relationship between means-end task analysis and context-specific and global efficacy in emergency certification teachers: Exploring a new model of efficacy. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, LA.
Henson, R. K. (2001). The effects of participation in teacher research on teacher efficacy. Teaching and Teacher Education, 17, 819–836.
Henson, R. K. (2002). From adolescent angst to adulthood: Substantive implications and measurement dilemmas in the development of teacher efficacy research. Educational Psychologist, 37, 137–150.
Hoang, T. (2018). Teacher Self-efficacy Research in English as Foreign Language Contexts: A Systematic Review. The Journal of Asia TEFL 15, 976-900.
Hoang & Wyat (2020). Exploring the self-efficacy beliefs of Vietnamese pre-service teachers of English as a foreign language. November 2020,
 Khani, R., & Tarlani Aliabadi, H. (2016). Can learning styles, teaching styles, and teachers' self-efficacy predict Iranian EFL students' language learning achievements? A structural equation modeling analysis. Teaching English Language (TEL), 10(2), 95-112.
Klassen, R. B., Bong, M., Usher, E. L., Chong, W. H., Huan, V. S., Wong., I. Y. F., & Georgiou, T. (2009). Exploring the validity of teachers’ self-efficacy scale in five countries. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 34, 67-76.
Klassen, R. M., & Tze, V. M. (2014). Teachers’ self-efficacy, personality,
and teaching effectiveness: a meta-analysis. Educational Research
Review, 12
, 59–76.
Klassen, R. M., Tze, V. M. C., Betts, S. M., & Gordon, K. A. (2011). Teacher efficacy research     1998– 2009: Signs of progress or unfulfilled promise? Review of Educational Research, 23, 21–43.
Liaw, E. C. (2009). Teacher efficacy of pre-service teachers in Taiwan: the influence of classroom teaching and group discussion. Teaching and
Teacher Education, 25
, 176–180
Marsh, H. W., & Hau, K. T. (2004). Explaining paradoxical relations between academic self-concepts and achievements: Cross-cultural generalizability of the internal/external frame of reference predictions across 26 countries. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96, 56–67.
Midgley, C., Feldlaufer, H., & Eccles, J. S. (1989). Change in teacher efficacy and student self-and task-related beliefs in mathematics during the transition to junior high school. Journal of Educational Psychology, 81(2), 247-258.
Milson, A. (2003). Teachers’ sense of efficacy for the formation of students’ character. Journal of Research in Character Education, 1(2), 89–106.
Moradian, M. R., & Ahmadi, N. (2014). The relationship between reflectivity in teaching and the sense of self-efficacy among novice and experienced Iranian EFL teachers. Paper presented at the 2nd National Applied Research Conference on English Language Studies, Tehran, Iran.
Moradkhani, S., Raygan, A., & Moein, M. S. (2017). Iranian EFL teachers' reflective practices and self-efficacy: Exploring possible relationships. System, 65(2017),1-14. DOI: 10.1016/j.system.2016.12.011.
Morris, D. B., Usher, E. L., & Chen, J. A. (2016). Reconceptualizing the sources of teaching self-efficacy: A critical review of emerging literature. Educational Psychology Review, 29(4), 795-833.
 Philippou, G. N., & Pantziara, M. (2014). Developments in mathematics teachers' efficacy beliefs. In B. Pepin & B. Roesken-Winter (Eds.), From beliefs to dynamic affect systems in mathematics education: Exploring a mosaic of relationships and interactions Part of the series Advances in Mathematics Education (95-117). Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.
Raudenbush, S. W., Rowan, B., & Cheong, Y. F. (1992). Contextual effects on the self-perceived efficacy of high school teachers. Sociology of Education, 65(2), 150-167.
Roberts, J. K., & Henson, R. K. (2001). A confirmatory factor analysis of a new measure of teacher efficacy: Ohio State Teacher Efficacy Scale. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Seattle.
Rose, J. S., & Medway, F. J. (1981). Measurement of teachers’ beliefs in their control over student outcome. Journal of Educational Research, 74, 185–190.
Rotter, J. B. (1966). Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement. Psychological Monographs, 80, 1–28.
Ross, J. A., & Bruce, C. (2007). Professional development effects on teacher efficacy: results of randomized field trial. The Journal of Educational Research, 101, 50–60.
Sarkhosh, M., & Rezaee A. A. (2014). How does university teachers’ emotional intelligence relate to their self-efficacy beliefs? Porta Linguarum, (21), 85-100.
Schunk, D. H., & Pajares, F. (2009). Self-efficacy theory. In K. R. Wentzel & A. Wigfield (Eds.), Handbook of motivation at school (pp. 35-54). New York, NY: Routledge.
Schunk, D. H., & Usher, E. L. (2011). Assessing self-efficacy for self-regulated learning. In B. J. Zimmerman & D. H. Schunk (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation of learning and performance (pp. 282-297). New York, NY: Routledge.
Schwarzer, R., Schmitz, G. S. & Daytner, G.T. (1999). Teacher self-efficacy. [Online publication]. http://strivetogether.org.
Skaalvik, E. M., & Skaalvik, S. (2007). Dimensions of teacher self-efficacy and relations with strain factors, perceived collective teacher efficacy, and teacher burnout. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99(3), 611-625.
Soodmand Afshar, H., & Hosseini Yar, S. (2019). Investigating the relationship between attitude towards professional development, reflective teaching, self-efficacy, and job performance of Iranian English as a foreign language teachers. Teaching English Language, 13(2), 147-179.
Sun, T., & Wang, C. (2020). College students’ writing self-efficacy and writing self-regulated learning strategies in learning English as a foreign language. System, 90, Article 102221.
Thompson, G. (2020). Exploring language teacher efficacy in Japan. London: Multilingual Matters.
Thompson, G., & Dooley, K. (2019). Exploring the key domains where teacher efficacy beliefs operate for Japanese high-school English teachers. Asia Pacific Education Review, 20(3), 503-518.
Thompson, G., & Woodman, K. (2019). Exploring Japanese high school English teachers’ foreign language teacher efficacy beliefs. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 47(1), 48-65.
Tschannen-Moran, M., Woolfolk Hoy, A., & Hoy, W. K. (1998). Teacher efficacy: Its meaning and measure. Review of Educational Research, 68, 202–248.
Tschannen-Moran, M., & Woolfolk Hoy, A. W. (2001). Teacher efficacy: Capturing an elusive construct. Teaching and Teacher Education, 17(7), 783-805.
Vaezi, S, & Fallah, N. (2011). The relationship between self-efficacy and stress among Iranian EFL teachers. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 2(5), 1168-1174.
Veisi, Sh., Azizfar, A., & Gowhary, H. (2015). The relationship between Iranian EFL teachers' self-efficacy and gender. International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences, 9(1), 140-144.
Wheatley, K. F. (2005). The case for reconceptualizing teacher efficacy research. Teaching and Teacher Education, 21(7), 747–766.
Wolters, C. A., & Daugherty, S. G. (2007). Goal structures and teachers' sense of efficacy: Their relation and association to teaching experience and academic level. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99, 181–193.
Woodrow, L. (2011). College English writing affect: Self-efficacy and anxiety. System, 39(4), 510–522.
Woolfolk Hoy, A., & Burke Spero, R. (2005). Changes in teacher efficacy during the early years of teaching: A comparison of four measures. Teaching and Teacher Education, 21, 343–356.
Wyatt, M. (2012). Towards a re-conceptualization of teachers' self-efficacy beliefs: tackling enduring problems with the quantitative research and moving on. International Journal of Research & Method in Education, 37, 166–189.
Zabihi, R. (2018). The role of cognitive and affective factors in measures of L2 writing. Written Communication, 35(1), 32–57.
Zee, M., & Kooman, H. M. Y. (2016). Teacher self-efficacy and its effects on classroom processes, student academic adjustments, and teacher well-being: A synthesis of 40 years of research. Review of Educational Research.
Zonoubi, R., Eslami Rasekh, A., & Tavakoli, M. (2017). EFL teacher self-efficacy development in professional learning communities. System, 66, 1-12.