A Comparison of Moves in Conclusion Sections of Research Articles in Psychology, Persian Literature and Applied Linguistics

Document Type: Original Article

Authors

Department of English Language, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar

Abstract

Literature abounds with genre analysis studies on different sections of Research Articles in various languages and fields; however, scant attention has been given to Persian articles. Hence, this genre-based study analyzed the rhetorical move structure of conclusion sectionsin three different disciplines: applied linguistics, psychology, and Persian literature. A corpus with 30 articles from leading international and Persian journals was devised. This corpus was analyzed for the move structure based on Yang and Allison's (2003) framework. After analyzing each article, the major moves were extracted and the frequencies were calculated and compared. Although the cross-disciplinary and cross‐linguistic analyses unfolded significant variation regarding Move 2, they revealed no marked differences in conclusion sections of the articles on psychology and applied linguistics. However, Persian literature articles displayed more variation, which, in turn, may suggest that in the Parisian articles, writers follow a standard of their own for writing conclusion sections. The study has pedagogical implications for academic writing courses.

Keywords


1. Introduction

Just as we learn to control different oral registers, we ought to be able to write in different ways for different purposes. A review of literature shows that students need to encounter and practice various genres to accomplish their writing goals. Without a doubt, at the heart of an expert academic writing lies what has come to be known as research articles (RAs). RA is one of the key genres used by scientific communities to communicate and circulate knowledge. Thomas and Hawes (1994) hold that RA is identified by "a recognizable communicative purpose and by the presence of characteristic features with standardized form, function, and presentation that are part of its general conventions” (p. 131). Ever since Swales (1990) introduced Genre analysis (GA) and move analysis in RAs, a considerable attention has been given to the structures of RA. Since GA provides insights into important characteristics of genres, including the organizational pattern as well as linguistic features, it has become a powerful instrument in text analysis. Genre analysis refers to the way in which texts are structured and organized (Hopkins & Dudley-Evans, 1988, as cited in Aslam & Mehmood, 2014). In other words, it explores discourse features in the broad context of the communicative event and justifies the discourse features in terms of authors' intentions and institutional conventions (Swales, 1991). Accordingly, the RA as a specific genre has been studied in terms of the use of linguistic features such as tense, voice, personal pronouns and organizational patterns (Pho, 2010) as well as genre moves such as Introductions, Conclusions, Results, Abstracts, and Discussions (Yang & Allison, 2003, Samarj, 2002, Swales, 1990, Nasseri & Nematollahi, 2014; Peacock, 2011). Moreover, several studies have compared the rhetorical moves used in English RAs with those of RAs written in other languages such as Turkish (Gcikli, 2013) and Portuguese (Moritz, Meurer, & Dellagnelo, 2008). Also, a number of studies have compared the rhetorical moves employed in other disciplines (Samarj, 2002, Atai, 2007; Habibie, 2010). It is evident that analyzing RA sections using the move-based models has been a fruitful research area. Genre-based studies contribute enormouslyto English for Specific Purposes (ESP) teachers and learners, as the findings have informed teachers and materials developers and have equipped students in different fields with techniques to understand and to achieve control over structural patterning and linguistic realization of texts in their own area of study and research.

Although ample research has been done on the comparison of genres written in different languages in different disciplines, it seems that in the Persian review literature, including the research article, the tradition of genre studies examining academic writing is not as extensive as it is in English. Apparently few studies have investigated the norms and conventions of Persian writing. It appears that the disciplines of choice i.e.  Persian literature, psychology and applied linguistics are still practically under-researched as compared to some other scientific fields. These areas have heretofore attracted scant attention from researchers. It seems that further investigations are needed to get knowledge on the structural and rhetorical organization of genres written in these fields. Thus, this study is an attempt to explore the possible similarities and differences in type and frequency of moves of the conclusion domain of research articles written in Persian in the field of literature, psychology, and English applied linguistics with reference to the Yang and Allison's (2003) model described for conclusion of English RAs. The conclusion section for analysis was selected because this section plays a significant role in RAs; through conclusion the researcher presents a brief summary of the entire research and the value of finding; in a nutshell the value of research. The rationale why Allison and Yang's model was chosen is that so far this model has been applied to analyze the conclusion section of articles; it seems that to date there has not been proposed a new model for conclusion. This model seems to fit best for conclusion sections. Moreover, this model has been used by several researchers to analyze conclusion parts of articles (Aslam & Mehmood, 2014; Moritz, Meurer & Dellagnelo, 2008). This study might have significance for genre-based research as it will contribute to and extend previous work on the conclusion section of RAs.

2. Review of Literature

At present linguists are studying different text and discourse types to identify their generic structures and linguistic features. They also look at other generic features such as move that has been employed by the writers for organizing the information throughout the text. Move analysis, as a part of genre analysis (Swales, 1990 & 2004), has been applied in a number of studies to identify the rhetorical organization of particular texts. Researchers posit different meanings for move. Swales (2004, p. 29), defines Move in GA as ''a socially recognized, highly structured and communicative discoursal event or activity which fulfills a particular communicative or social function in a certain community or in spoken or written discourse''. Also, Yang and Allison (2003) define move as a function of a specific segment of the texts in a general level while steps are very specific rhetorical means used to manifest and realize the move functions. Following this definition, in greater details, Bhatia (2001) describes moves as "Rhetorical instruments that realize a subset of specific communicative purposes associated with a genre, and as such they are interpreted in the context of the communicative purposes of the genre in question" (p. 84). A Move can be realized by a clause; or by several sentences. Their length varies ranging from several paragraphs to at least one proposition. Move as the writer’s social purpose is subdivided into steps. Steps are optional textual elements, which may or may not be present in any specific text. In other words, A Move can be realized by either one Step or combination of Steps. (Flowerdew & Dudley-Evans, 2002, as cited in Marefat & Mohammadzadeh, 2013). Since moves are semantic and functional units of texts, which can be identified because of their communicative purposes and linguistic boundaries, Move analysis is useful tool in genre studies.

Research article as a specific genre is composed of eight main parts: Abstract, Introduction, Review of literature, Methodology, Results, Discussion, Conclusion, and Reference. A glimpse at review literature reveals that different parts have been investigated by several scholars based on different models of genre analysis.

Different scholars have proposed various models for different sections of papers. For the organization of the content of the Introduction section of research articles, Swales’ Create-A-Research-Space '(CARS) model applied for studying the introduction section of the academic papers in various academic disciplines in English as well as other languages. Although the CARS model was originally designed to analyze the Introduction section, it has been generalized to other sections of academic articles as well. For instance, it has been applied to other sections such as the Abstract (Samraj, 2005), the Methodology section (Bruce 2008; Lim 2006), the Result section (Brett, 1994), the Discussion section (Hopkins & Dudley-Evans 1988). This model which is dominant in literature of genre analysis comprises three obligatory moves which are realized by respective steps: Move 1, establishing the research territory is for setting up the target research domain from the perspective of the discourse community. This move includes steps of Claiming centrality and/or Making topic generalizations or Reviewing items of previous research; Move 2, Establishing the niche or gap consists of four steps of Counter-claiming, Indicating a gap, Question-raising ,and Continuing a tradition. Finally, Move 3, occupying the niche is composed of possible steps of 3(a) outlining the purposes of the research, 3 (b) stating the research questions, 3 (c) announcing the principal findings and 3 (d) outlining the structure of the article. The main purpose of Move 1 is to convince the expert audience of the significance of the study by making strong claims with reference to the published research literature. Move 2 serves to identify the more specific areas of research requiring further investigations. In this move, authors indicate a gap in the current literature and express their own opinions concerning the importance of their findings for the current research. Move 3 functions to introduce the purpose, main findings, and structure of the article.

Although the above model is extensively used in GA studies, the results of studies by Bunton (2005) and Samraj (2002) demonstrate that this model is not as comprehensive as it claims. Bunton (2005) in examining the dissertation introduction added a step named Defining terms, in move 1 (Establishing the territory) of PhD dissertation introductions which has not been predicted by CARS model. This step does not exist in research article introductions while it plays an important function in constructing Move 1 in dissertation introductions. Also, The results of this study displayed that (CARS) model did not adequately account for the structure and some important features of all introductions, such as the presence of definitions of terms, exemplifications of difficult concepts, and evaluation of the research, hence leaving the applicability of the CARS model downplaying the applicability of the CARS model, and acknowledging the need for modification and embedding in the CARS model to account for the structures found in RA introductions across disciplines. Following these shortcomings, Swales (2004) modified his four-move model to three-move model, reducing the number of steps in Move1 to only one: topic generalizations of increasing specificity. Review of literature is now not restricted to Move 1 Step 3 but it occurs throughout the introduction and the article as a whole. Move 2 in earlier model has been reduced to two, and now there is a new optional step (step 2) named presenting positive justification. Move 3 is renamed to presenting the present work, with seven obligatory steps and three optional and three "PSIF" (probable in some fields) steps (Jalilifar, 2010).

Unlike other sections, to date few models have been proposed for conclusion sections. The rationale might be due to the fact that the distinction between Discussions and Conclusions is not always made; conclusion and discussion sections are sometimes conflated into a single heading in articles. The difference is largely conventional, depending on traditions in particular fields and journals (Bunton, 2005). Discussions deals with findings, interpreting and commenting on specific results, whereas the Conclusion focuses more on highlighting overall results and evaluating the study, suggesting future research as well as recommending implications for teaching and learning (Yang & Alison, 2003). A notable work for conclusion part was carried out by Yang and Alison (2003); they analyzed 20 conclusions of applied linguistics articles and reported the observed moves and steps as follows: Move 1-summarizing the study steps; Move 2-evaluating the study, realized by three steps :a) indicating  significances/advantage, b) indicating limitations, c) evaluating methodology; and Move 3-deductions from the research, realized by a) recommending further research, b) drawing pedagogic implications. Move 1 is employed to summarize methods, findings and claims, with references to previous. Move 2 functions to evaluate the overall study by pointing out the limitations, indicating the contributions or evaluating the methodology. Move 3 suggests pedagogic implications, pointing out the line of further study. Although Yang and Allison’s (2003) model moves of the conclusion section follows a more linear structure, however research on the structure of discussion and conclusion sections has found that they are complex and highly cyclical. For instance, Moritz, Meurer and Dellagnelo's (2008) study, which compared three corpora of conclusion sections in the field of applied linguistics written by three groups of different authors (Portuguese L1, English L1, & English L2) reported the cyclical structure of Moves.

Another model for conclusion is Benton's (2005) model which has been proposed for conclusions of PhD dissertations. Unlike Yang and Allison's model this one consists of five moves, namely introductory restatement, consolidation of research space, practical implications and recommendations, future research and concluding restatement, out of which the two first ones are found to be obligatory.

For Result and Discussion sections in a sample of 20 Applied Linguistics articles, Yang and Allison (2003) also proposed a six move structure: 1. preparatory information, 2. reporting results, 3. summarizing results, 4. commenting on results, 5.evaluating the study, and 6. deductions from the research. They describe the first three as ‘‘dominant moves”. The first move serves to provide relevant information as a preparation for the presentation of results experiment. With the second Move, results of a study are presented, normally with relevant evidence such as statistics and examples. Move 3 presents integrated results on the basis of a number of specific results.   Move 4 is employed by writer to make a more general claim arising from his experimental results. Move 5 functions to evaluate the overall study by pointing out the limitations, indicating the contributions or evaluating the methodology. With Move 6 the writer justifies the need for the future work recommended.

Plentiful studies have focused on the extent of uniformity and variation both within and across academic disciplines in specific sections of research papers. The cross-linguistic, cross-cultural similarities and differences of RA abstracts in the field of literature have been investigated by Marefat and Mohammadzadeh (2013). In their study, they analyzed 90 English and Persian abstracts written in the field of literature, by English and Persian native speakers, based on the IMRD (Introduction, Method, Results, and Discussion) and CARS (Create A Research Space) models.

Hyland (2003) explored the generic structure of dissertation acknowledgement texts written by Contones and Mandarin speakers writing in English. He discovered that the acknowledgements are complicated textual constructs that include the public, personal, social, professional, academic and moral components.

Habibi (2008) analyzed article introductions of English for Specific Purposes (ESP), Psycholinguistics, and Sociolinguistics, using Swales’ CARS model. The results indicated there were no significant differences across the afore-mentioned disciplines regarding the move structure assigned by the CARS model. Besides it was revealed that the CARS model, although sounds appropriate framework for organizing and ordering RA introduction, does not take into account some significant features of the RA introduction.

Lim (2006) analyzed the Methods section in 20 articles from two business management journals and identified 3 moves and 12 steps in the Methods section. The three moves include describing the data collection procedures, delineating procedure/s for measuring variables and elucidating data analysis procedure/s.

Similarly, Bunton (2005) investigated Conclusion chapters in 45 PhD theses in social sciences and technology discipline to see if there is any disciplinary variation between these two disciplines in the way their Conclusion chapters were written. His study revealed that there are some disciplinary variation between science and technology disciplines and those in the humanities and social sciences. Having merged  Swales (1990) model, Yang and Allison’s (2003) as well as Bunton’s (2005) model for conclusions of PhD dissertations, Moritz, Meurer and Dellagnelo (2008), analyzed 36 conclusions of RAs in the field of applied linguistics written in Portuguese and in English. Their study  came up with six moves including ‘Restating the introductory statement’, ‘Consolidating the research space’, ‘Summarizing the study’, ‘Commenting on results’, ‘Evaluating the study’, and ‘Making deductions from the research’. It was found that ‘Making deductions from the research’, was the most frequent move. Furthermore, the comparison showed that the English L2 writers tended to elaborate more in their pieces of writing than the English L1, and the Portuguese L1 writers. The results of this study indicated that the linguistic and rhetorical conventions of the first language interfere with the writing of the second language. Their findings revealed no constant pattern of rhetorical organization and any obligatory moves or steps. However, the results showed nonlinear and cyclical structure of moves and steps.

Utilizing Yang and Allison's (2003) model, Amnuai and Wannaruk (2011) compared the rhetorical organization of English RA conclusion sections published in journals in Thailand with those articles published in international journals. The result showed that the most frequent move in both sets of data was Move 1 (Summarizing the study).It was also found that the frequency of Move 2 (Evaluating the study) and Move 3 (Deductions from the research) in the international corpus was higher than that in the Thai corpus.

Having combined Models of Yang and Allison (2003) and Bunton (2005), Aslam and Mehmood (2014) explored macro-structures (Move Analysis) of 50 conclusion sections of Research Articles in Social Sciences and Natural Sciences to identify the differences in RAs conclusion sections across various disciplines in terms of moves and steps constituting each move. The study demonstrated disciplinary variation in both disciplines.

Peacook (2002) also accomplished a research on research articles to examine the communicative moves in discussion sections across different disciplines including hard science as physics, environmental science, biology, business and soft science such as language and linguistics, social administration, public, and law with 242 RAs. Drawing on the Dudley-Evans model, the study documented some new moves and move cycle not found by Dudley-Evans and also demonstrated a number of differences in the main part that is evaluation.

In another study, employing Kanoksilapatham's (2007) model, Khalili and Kazempouri, (2015) investigated the generic structure of ESP RAs in international and Iranian journals. This study showed that contextualizing the study (Move 1) and consolidating results (Move 2) were the obligatory moves in Discussion section of ESP RAs across international and Iranian journals. Furthermore, Evaluation of the findings was a new step found in international Discussion sections but absent in Iranian ones.

A notable example of English-Persian contrastive genre-based studies have been done on Results and Discussion sections of articles by Atai and Falah (2004).They contrasted the Results and the Discussion sections of articles on applied linguistics written by English and Persian native speakers (ENS & PNS) drawing on models proposed by Brett (1994) and Swales (1990) for Results and Discussion sections. The study also investigated the discussion sections of applied linguistics RAs with respect to evaluated entities and ascribed values based on Thetela's (1997) model for evaluative language of these sections. The findings revealed that although not all the moves suggested by Brett (1994) appeared in the corpus, both ENS & PNS writers tended to use similar moves in the Results section. However, they concluded that the moves of the Discussion section, unexpected outcome and generalizability were absent in PNS corpus. ENS writers, on the other hand, used explanation and recommendation more frequently than their PNS counterparts. The authors concluded that these differences might be due to the peculiar conventions of the genre of RAs of the discipline or the cultural differences between English and Persian native speakers. As regards the evaluative language, it was found that ENS writers made more frequent use of evaluative lexis in the Discussion section.

Based on what was outlined above, the following research questions were posed in this study.

6. Research Questions

The present study addresses the following research questions:

  1. How      the moves are employed in the conclusion sections of RAs in Persian      literature, psychology and Applied Linguistics?  
  2. Is      there any significance difference between the conclusion sections of RAs      in Persian literature, psychology and Applied Linguistics as far as the application      of moves in their conclusion sections is concerned?

7. Instrument

Yang and Allison's (2003) Move model for Conclusion sections of RAs was applied to analyze the conclusion sections of RAs. To fit this model to the conclusion section in the current study, it was slightly modified. The model consists of 3 moves as shown in Table 1:

Table 1

Conclusion Moves, Steps and their Definitions

Move 1: Summarizing the study

Move 2: Evaluating the study

Step 1: Indicating significance/advantage

Step 2: Indicating limitations

Step 3: Evaluating methodology

Move 3: Deductions from the research

Step 1: Recommending further research

Step 2: Drawing pedagogic implications

8. Procedure

To carry out this exploratory-descriptive study, for each field, 30 conclusions were selected from the Iranian articles and valid international journals using purposeful sampling. For the Persian corpus, journals of Persian literature and psychology were taken from governmental universities' journals in Iran. The selection of such journals was motivated by their availability on line.  For the consistency of the results, all the articles chosen for the present study had been submitted between 2013 and 2015; all these articles were written by MA and PhD holders. Since in each three corpora, conclusion sections had different titles and it is often combined with discussion section, the present paper analyzed only those RAs which had separate conventional format of Introduction-Review-Methods-Results-Discussion-Conclusion. That is to say, each conclusion section used in the current study is a section that stands alone. Table 2 illustrates the number and characteristics of corpus chosen for the study.

To analyze the corpora in terms of their rhetorical features, the study used a move-step analysis based on Yang and Allison's (2003) model. Unit of analysis was sentence or combination of sentences that convey similar social purpose. Data analysis was done in two stages. First, distribution patterns of moves and steps along with their communicative functions in each discipline per text were computed. Second, to detect the possible differences and to see whether the differences were significant, moves were compared across the three corpora applying a series of statistical nonparametric tests for nominal data, namely Chi- square test, and then the frequency of moves and steps for each group was calculated. Function and realizations of each move/step in the current study were presented subsequently.

Table 2

                                               Corpus Characteristics

                 Applied Linguistics                        

Persian   literature

Psychology

30

30

30

9. Data analysis

 To answer the first question, the moves were counted. As shown in Table 3, the most frequent move of all groups was Move1 (summery), followed by Move 2 (evaluating).

Table 3

 Frequency of Moves and Steps Found in the Conclusion Sections in the Three Corpora

 

Applied   linguistics       

F             

Persian   literature         

F           

Psychology

F           

Move 1

28

93

30

100

30

100

Step 1

5

16

21

70

4

13

Step 2

9

30

17

56

8

26

Step 3

Step 4

19

63

4

13

15

53

27

90

29

96

30

100

Step 5

9

30

1

3/3

18

60

Move2

21

70

4

13

15

53

Step 1

16

53

4

53

7

23

Step2

8

26

1

26

9

30

Step  3

7

23

3

23

9

30

Move 3

22

73

7

23

15

53

Step 1

12

40

5

16

13

43

Step  2

13

43

0

0

4

13

* F = Frequency %

To answer the second question, Chi-Square tests were run for each pair to determine if there are any differences in each move used in each discipline. As Table 4 displays, there is not any difference between the use of move 1 in the conclusion of RAs in all three corpora, (N = 60) = .75, p >.05, suggesting that these disciplines shared this move.

Table 4

 Chi-Square TestsConclusion Sections in the Three Corpora

 

value

value

df

df

sig

sig

Pearson Chi-Square move 1 for three corpuses

 

.750

 

1

 

.386

 

Chi-Square move 2 for Persian & Psycho

 

.000

.333

2

1

1.000

.564

Chi-Square move 2 for Persian & Applied

 

.000

.000

2

2

1.000

1.000

Chi-Square move 3 for Psycho & Applied

.333

.000

2

1

.564

1.000

Chi-Square move 3 for Persian & Applied

.000

.000

2

2

1.000

1.000

 Chi-Square Move 3 For Psycho & Applied

.333

.000

1

2

.546

1000

Note. p < 0.05

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Chi-square test of M2 for corpus of Persian and applied Linguistics shows a significant difference at 0.05 with value .33.>.05. Thus it can be claimed that there is a difference between moves in two corpus analyzed. With regard to move 3, Chi-square test of M3 for Persian and applied linguistics displays a significant difference at.0.05 with Sig.: 000; whereas chi-square value for psycho and applied linguistics does not depict difference at 0.05 with value .33.>.05. Therefore, it seems that members of the same discourse community across different contexts follow the same rhetorical structure in their RAs. As Duldely Evans (2000) states, moves are common to all disciplines, but there are some variations in terms of frequency and type of the move.

10. Results and Discussion

It was discovered that the most frequent move structure in applied linguistics was M1-M2-M3,M1-M2-M3 M1- and M1-M2-M3-M2-M3; Persian writers usually followed M1-M1.The M1-M2 structure was found in only 3 conclusion sections of Persian literature. One Persian conclusion revealed M1-M3-M1 another one shows M1-M1-M2-M1-M3. Psychology corpus, however, uncovered patterns like M1-M1-M2-M3, M1-M2-M1-M3, and the structure M2-M1-M1 was observed in only one conclusion. These findings are not in agreement with those found in Yang and Allison’s (2003) study in which the three moves were found to be commonly organized in a linear structure. The explanation might be first due to the disciplinary variations; namely it might be due to the rhetorical demands of each field, secondly, it could be related to small sample size.

The results of this study demonstrated that there were both similarities and differences in terms of move occurrence of the conclusion in each corpus. Regarding move occurrence, the most frequent move in both sets of data was Move 1: Summarizing the Study (100%, 93%) whose function is to introduce the main purpose of the study. This move usually appears at the beginning of the conclusion sections, characterized by reiterating the general topic being researched, establishing territory, purpose of research or hypotheses, reviewing results or findings and comparing or making reference to previous research. This move observed in almost all Persian conclusions occupying the maximum space in all corpora. The summery move in psychology articles usually focuses on results carried out while this move in applied linguistics more often focuses on purpose, research questions or hypotheses. In both, this move includes findings/results and claims, making recommendations for further research, reports on method of the research and in some cases evaluating method. However, in psychology, the step of concluding remarks which was not predicted by Yang and Allison's (2003) model was observed more than in applied linguistics. The most noticeable differences between psychology and applied linguistics lie in move 1 step 5 (reference to previous research findings). In Persian articles of psychology, researchers appeal too much to previous literature to support and explicate their claims as though they want to convince their readers of their findings with great evidence. They employ two ways to make reference to previous literature: integrated or nonintegrated; however in psychology mostly researchers referred to literature in intergraded manner. The reason why Persian researchers appeal too much to literature might attribute to cultural structures. As Katchen (1982) argues, writing in any language is entangled firmly with the peculiar culture of the rhetoric of that language. For instance, in culture with low distance or high distance degree of trust is different. Usually in culture with high distance, trust is low; therefore, providing sufficient evidence could be a must in the spoken or written speech. Moreover, another step was commenting and evaluating the results which were not mentioned in the employed model. Below are realizations of this move:

Applied linguistics: The main aim of vocabulary teaching is to increase the number of used active words and to establish effective reading comprehension and recounting skills. A person starts to learn the system of his mother language from his birth. In this process, he firstly meets the fairy tales as an example of children’s literature. Because of their artistic value Regularized Fairy Tales are proper for creating awareness in teaching vocabulary. Hence, a person not only develops his vocabulary knowledge, but also he ensures cultural transmissions. Words and phrases do not make sense for reader unless they take part in a context. So, in this study, “Fifteen Turkish Fairy Tales” by Adnan Binyazar are examined for meaning of words and phrases’ in contexts and in fairy tales as a literature genre. The following results can be listed at the end of the study:

1. Fairy tales should be first literary genre for children, which marks the start of vocabulary learning/teaching at early ages.

 

Persian literature:

 صابر و نسیم شمال تعدادی از اشعار خودرا برای کودکان سروده اند.در هوپ هوپنامه ی صابر 23 شعر و در گلزار ادبی شمال 33 شعر برای کودکان دیده میشود.نسیم شمال در هر 33 حکایت منظوم از قالب شعر مثنوی استفاده کرده است. اما صابر 19 شعر در قالب مثنوی دو شعر در قالب ترجیع بند یک شعر در قالب چاپاره و یک شعر در قالب قطعه دارد.همه اشعار ی که نسیم شمال برای کودکان سروده روایی و در قالب قصه اند.اما برخی از اشعار صابر روایی و برخی دیگر توصیف یا ترانه  هستند.استفاده از نماد و فابل و تشخیص برای عینی کردن و ملموس سازی حقایق زندگی و تعلیم مباحث دینی و اخلاقی و اموزشی از شیوه های هر دو شاعر است. اما بسامد فابل وتشخیص در دیوان نسیم شمال بسیار یشتر از دیوان  صابر  است.

Translation: Saber and Shemal have written some of their poems for children. There are 23 poems in Saber's Hophop and 33 poems in Shemal for children. In each 33 versed anecdotes, Nasim Shemal has used Mathnavi, whereas Saber has 19 poems in Tarjiband, one poem in Stanza, and two Quatrains. All poems by Nasim for children are narrative. However, some of Saber'spoems are narrative and others are either descriptive or ballade. Both poets employ symbol, fable and personification to make facts tangible and to teach moral and religious issues. But the frequency of fable and personification in saber's is more than that in Shemal's works (Dīvān).

Persian article of psychology:

از یافته های پزوهش حاضر چنین  بر می‌آید که این شیوه درمانی موجب کاهش تعارضات زناشویی و افزایش انطباق پذیری – همبستگی خانواده در آزمودنی های گروه آزمایش در مقایسه با گروه کنترل شده است.این اثر در مرحله  پیگیری نیز  تداوم داشته است. نتایج این پژوهش با نتایج  پزوهش های انجام شده توسط یالسین و همکاران 2009همخوانی دارد.

Translation: Based on the findings of the present study, it can be concluded that this treatment method has decreased the martial conflicts and increased adaptability and solidarity of family for the subjects in experimental group compared to control groups' subjects. This effect has continued in the later stages as well. The results of this research are in line with Yalsin et al. (2009) study.

Move 2: Evaluating the study, comprising steps of advantage, the significance of study, limitation, and methodology in the two corpora appeared slightly less frequently than Move 1. This move and its steps are apparently absent in Persian literature corpus. Its frequencies in the applied linguistics and psychology corpora were 70% and 53% respectively. As obvious, the frequency of Move 2 in applied linguistics is higher than that of the corpus of psychology. In Persian literature corpus, the frequency of this move is 13%; only 4 articles did have this move; lack of evaluation may be ascribed to indirectness culture in the dominant Persian environment. Within such culture self-promotion or self assertiveness is not encouraged that much. The authors of Persian are familiar with the academic practices in their respective culture and the sociopragmatic conventions of direct self-promotion. Realization of this move is as follows:

Applied linguistics: However, a note of caution, very little generalization can be drawn from the findings here as the sample size in this study is rather small. The findings, however, show that we need to re-think the role of the NS as the sole norm provider for Malaysia.

Finally, Move 3: deduction from the study whose purpose is to present recommendations or implications of the study was seen in the three corpora of psychology, applied linguistics, and Persian literature with the frequency of 90%,   23%, and  53 % respectively. One interesting finding was that in all the three corpora, the researchers employed both plural pronoun and third person pronoun. As regards hedging devices, Persian writers employed phrases like probably, as though, it seems that, it could be said that, whereas in English applied linguistics, writers employed more modals such as could, might Persian writers seem to be reluctant to mention limitations in Persian corpus. In case of recommendation step, it was observed that in Persian corpus of both psychology and literature plural and words of expressing hope or wish such as we hope, or it is hoped that are more common. The realization of this move is as follows:

Applied linguistics: The results could have a significant impact on the area of teaching and learning Arabic as a second language in a Spanish context. When differences are found to exist across texts and cultures, they can then be explained to students.

Persian literature:

نویسندگان باید کودک را به عنوان انسان باشعور و اگاه که قدرت تشخیص وادراک زیبایی‌ها را دارد بپذیرند و در تعریف خود از کودک به محدود کردن او در داشتن نیازها و ویزگی های خاص اصرار نورزند. نویسندگان کودک نباید تشخیص واندیشه خود را معیار  انتخاب موضوعات و درون مایه برای کودکان قرار بدهند بلکه باید بکوشند مخاطب خود را و هر انچه با سر نوشت شخصیت محیط زندگی و  اجتماعی او در ارتباط است بشناسند.

Translation: Authors should accept child as a conscious, wise person with ability to appreciate beauties. And in their definition of child, they should not insistent on confining child to having special traits and needs. They should not take their own views and discernment as criteria for subjects and themes for children rather they should attempt to get to know their reader and whatever is related to his destiny, his character, and social environment; and to make their world closer to the children's world.

The nature of discourse and culture or social structures of different cultures could be responsible for differences in each corpus. It might be concluded that cultural discrepancies between English and Persian may have given rise to moves in the English corpus which are absent in the Persian corpus. As to Persian literature, another explanation might be the preferences of journals from which the corpus was taken. They may have different preferences. This claim can be checked by looking at their guidelines. This study came up with certain steps which have not been specified in the aforementioned model including citing previous research, presenting generalizations, establishing territory, commenting on the findings and concluding remarks, the first three could be added to the summery move, the latter could be attached to move 2 and move 3, respectively.

It was observed that Persian literature corpus, although containing the same types of moves as other corpora, follows a more flexible pattern; they are usually descriptive in nature. The researchers simply give a summary of main points of the entire articles. They do so by presenting general topic and expand it as the argument proceeds on and come to a general conclusion explicitly or implicitly. On the basis of the analysis, this study came up with a model of move schemata for Persian corpus. The analysis of Persian conclusion in RAs illustrated that they are made up of two levels of organization: a macro level and a micro level (moves, steps); the macro level consists of Introduction, Body, and Conclusion. Introduction is characterized by an establishing territory of research step. Usually the introduction begins with topic restatement and then in the body the topic expands argument as it moves on. At the end, the conclusion is ended by concluding remarks such as it could be concluded that'; therefore, we conclude that.'

11. Conclusion 

The main aim of the study was to scrutinize type and frequency of moves as well as the overall rhetorical pattern of the conclusion sections of RAs written in the fields of Persian literature, psychology, and applied linguistics. Yang and Allusion's (2003) model was employed as analysis framework.. The findings demonstrated that apparently there are conventions within the discourse community of each corpus with regard to the way researchers are required to make the conclusion of their research. It seems that the format of conclusion in each corpus investigated depends on its rhetorical purpose of each discipline. The results should not be interpreted as prescriptive rules of right and wrong, but rather as guidelines into the norms and expectations of the discourse communities. This exploratory move-analysis study was the first of its kind contributing to the description of the chosen disciplines. Concerning the method, it should be noted that aforementioned model was slightly modified to fit to the conclusion sections under study. The identification of the move structure and variations of RA conclusions across various disciplines, the possibility of expansion of the move structure of Yang and Allusion's model and inclusion of further steps, applicability and flexibility of Yang and Allusion's model to disciplines would enrich our knowledge of the nature of the disciplines and might contribute to a comprehensive model that can account for generic structure of RA conclusions in various disciplines.

There are a number of implications for this study. First, the findings may contribute to our understanding of how the different linguistic systems, cultures, and disciplinary communities interact and influence the rhetorical choices made by academic writers. Second, in terms of pedagogical implications, an inventory of moves and steps could facilitate the modeling of conclusion of composition programs in universities, as well as the teaching of academic writing in Persian, EAP, and ESP courses. Understanding of textual norms in different disciplines enables educators and materials designers to provide instruction or effective instructional strategies to help L2 learners obtain knowledge of the rhetorical structure of research article conclusions.  It may also make students, teachers, and researchers aware of some characteristics of Persian conclusion sections which are different from those of English texts.

In this study, only the rhetorical move structures of conclusion parts of RA were analyzed. Therefore, further research could compare the rhetorical move structure of other sections of articles published in both local and international contexts. Last but not least, there might be deviations in the results of the study if larger sample is used.

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