Developing a Descriptive Model of Critical Language Awareness in the EFL Context of Iran

Document Type : Original Article


Shiraz University



This study aimed at revealing the current state of Critical Language Awareness (CLA) in the context of Iran by analyzing Iranian English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers' understanding of CLA, how familiar they are with the notion of CLA, and the way they approach it in their own instruction. It also focuses on the techniques they may use to raise their students' critical language awareness and also the challenges which they may confront in this regard. A group of 36 Iranian English instructors teaching English as a foreign language at different contexts, including universities, schools, and language institutes were chosen as the participants in the first phase of the study. Classroom observations and semistructured interviews were used to collect data. To complement the qualitative data, in the second phase of the study, a questionnaire was developed based on classroom observations and interviews, which was then distributed among 300 EFL instructors from the same contexts. Based on the findings with regard to the current state of CLA among EFL instructors in the context of Iran, a descriptive model of CLA was developed. This model was developed using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) procedure by applying the Linear Structural Relations (LISREL) software. This model might be useful to several stakeholders in the field, including language teachers, as well as their learners, material developers, and curriculum designers. Further, the study revealed that the current state of CLA among EFL teachers in the context of Iran depended on these teachers' background involving their experience, educational context, and their students' age and level of education.


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Volume 11, Issue 1
Winter and Spring 2017
Pages 189-219
  • Receive Date: 06 October 2016
  • Revise Date: 10 January 2017
  • Accept Date: 28 January 2017