Language Use and Group Dynamics: Observations from a Project-Oriented CALL Classroom

Document Type : Original Article

Author

Exeter University, UK

10.22132/tel.1999.135265

Abstract

This paper explores the relationships between students' language use and group dynamics in a Chinese project-oriented CALL (PrOCALL) classroom. The study reveals that PrOCALL does not necessarily create more target language use and that L1 performs multiple functions through descriptive statistics and fine-grained microanalysis of group interaction. The results also highlight how group dynamics develop and evolve. From a sociocultural perspective, the study demonstrates the first language can be a powerful tool in boosting the potential for collaborative language learning. This paper argues for the need for more qualitative study on interaction at the computer.

Keywords


Azkarai, A., & García Mayo, M. (2015). Task-modality and L1 use in EFL oral interaction. Language Teaching Research, 19, 550–571.
Centeno-Cortés, B., & Jiménez Jiménez, A. F. (2004). Problem-solving tasks in a foreign language: The importance of L1 in private verbal thinking. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 14(1), 7–35.
Chiou, B. (2014). Rethinking the Role of L1 in the EFL Classroom. English Teaching & Learning, 38(4), 53–78.
Conteh, J. (2018). Translanguaging. ELT Journal, 72(4), 445–447.
Dailey-O'Cain, J., & Liebscher, G. (2009). Teacher and student use of the first language in foreign language classroom interaction: functions and applications. In M. Turnbull, & J. Dailey-O'Cain (Eds.), First language use in second and foreign language learning (pp.131-144). Bristol: Multilingual Matters. 
Dao, P., & McDonough, K. (2017). The effect of task role on Vietnamese EFL learners’ collaboration in mixed proficiency dyads. System, 65, 15–24.
Darhower, M. (2002). Interactional features of synchronous computer-mediated communication in the intermediate L2 class: A sociocultural case study, CALICO Journal, 19(2), 249-277.
Debski, R. (1997). Support of creativity and collaboration in the language classroom: A new role for Technology. In R. Debski, J. Gassin, & M. Smith (Eds.), Language Learning through Social Computing (pp.39-65). Applied Linguistics Association of Australia, Occasional Papers 19.
Debski, R. (2000). Project-oriented CALL: Implementation and evaluation. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 13(4-5), 307-332.
DeGuerrero, M., & Villamil, O. S. (2000). Activating the ZPD: Mutual scaffolding in L2 peer revision.  The Modern Language Journal, 84 (1), 51-68.
De Guerrero, M. C. M. (2018). Going covert: Inner and private speech in language learning. Language Teaching, 51, 1–35.
DiCamilla, F., & Antón, M. (2012).  Functions of L1 in the collaborative interaction of beginning and advanced second language learners.  International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 22(2), 160-188.
Donato, R. (1994). Collective scaffolding in second language learning. In J. P. Lantolf, & G. Appel (Eds.), Vygotskian approaches to second language research (pp. 33-56). Norwood, NJ: Albex.
Drew, P., & Heritage, J. (1992). Analysing Talk at Work: An introduction. In P. Drew, & J. Heritage (Eds.), Talk at work (pp. 3-65). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Egbert, J., & Yang, Y. (2004). Mediating the digital divide in CALL classrooms: Promoting effective language tasks in limited technology contexts. ReCALL, 16(2), 280-291.
Ellis, R. (1999). Learning a Second Language through Interaction. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Ewing, M. (2000). Conversations of Indonesian language students on computer-mediated projects: Linguistic responsibility and control. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 13(4), 333-356.
Foster, P., & Ohta, A. (2005). Negotiation for meaning and peer assistance in second language Classrooms. Applied Linguistics, 26(3), 402-430.
Gánem-Gutiérrez, G. A. (2009). Repetition, use of L1, and reading aloud as meditational mechanisms during collaborative activity at the computer. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 22(4), 323-348.
Gánem-Gutiérrez, G. A., & Roehr, K. (2011). Use of L1, metalanguage, and discourse markers: a window into the regulatory processes of L2 learners during individual task performance. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 21(3), 297-318.
García, O., & Li, W. (2014). Translanguaging: Language, Bilingualism and Education. Basingstoke:Palgrave Macmillan.
García, O., & Lin, A. M. (2017). Translanguaging in Bilingual Education. In O. García, A. M. Lin, & S. May (Eds.). Bilingual and Multilingual Education (pp.117–130). Switzerland: Springer.
García Mayo, M. P., & Ángeles Hidalgo, M. (2017). L1 use among young EFL mainstream and CLIL learners in task-supported interaction. System, 67, 132–145.
Gu, P. Y. (2002). Effects of project-based CALL on Chinese EFL learners. Asian Journal of English Language Teaching, 12, 195-210.
Ha, D. T. (2017). The Impact of Different Instructions on Vietnamese EFL Students’ Acquisition of Formulaic Sequences. English Language Teaching, 10(8): 18–31.
Haas, C. (1996). Writing technology: Studies on the materiality of literacy. M